High temperature ultrasonic transducers: review
Keywords:ultrasonic transducer, high temperature transducers, piezoelectrics, bonding, acoustic coupling.
AbstractThe problems of development of high-temperature ultrasonic transducers for modern science and technology applications are analysed. More than 10 piezoelectric materials suitable for operation at high temperatures are overviewed. It is shown that bismuth titanate based piezoelectric elements are most promisable. Bonding methods of piezoelectric elements to a protector and backing are discussed. Thermosonic gold-to-gold bonding is most modern and possesses unique features. Our achievements in this field are analysed in the context of world progress. In sol-gel and chemical vapour deposition technology bonding and sometimes coupling problems are avoided at all. Design peculiarities of the transducers are reviewed. Commercial sensors in the meanwhile are often characterized with poor performance in extreme conditions.
In conclusions recommendations for high temperature ultrasonic transducers design are formulated.
ULTRASONIC AND ACOUSTIC MEASUREMENTS
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